|Title:||United States new and replacement water main piping and services in number of miles for 2008 to 2011, and forecast for 2012|
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NEW & REPLACEMENT MAINS & SERVICES,2008-2012
2012 2011 2010 2009 2008
Miles of Main New XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX Miles of Main Replacement XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX Total XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX Miles of Service New XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX Miles of Main Replacement XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX Total X,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX COMBINE TOTALS XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX
The nation's natural gas distribution industry delivers gas to the homes or businesses of more than XX million customers every day. These customers consumed approximately XX.X Tcf of gas in 2010. Some X.X million miles of pipeline of varying sizes and pressures are used to transport natural gas annually from the wellhead to customers throughout the U.S.
In 2010,XX percent of the natural gas consumed in the U.S. was produced domestically; the remaining supply came from Canada (XX.X percent) with X.X percent imported as LNG. Approximately XX percent of the natural gas used in the U.S. is delivered to residential customers for heating, cooking and other domestic needs.
As of Feb. XX,2010, LDCs were required to establish a Distribution Integrity Management Program (DIMP). Local distribution companies had until Aug. X.XXXX to write and implement their program.
The DIMP regulation requires all jurisdictional gas distribution pipeline operators (i.e., local gas companies) to develop, write and implement a natural gas distribution system integrity management program that demonstrates the following elements;
* Knowledge of the pipeline system;
* Identification of system threats and the risk associated with those threats;
* Evaluation and ranking of risks;
* Identification and implementation of measures to address risks:
* Provisions for plan measurement and performance, monitoring of results, and evaluation of effectiveness;
* Provisions for program improvement; and
* Provisions for program reporting.
Also under Federal Pipeline Safety Regulations XX CFR XXX.XXX. LDCs are required to install an Excess Flow Valve on all new and renewed service lines that serve only one single-family residence.
Strong demand, regulatory and legislative changes are seen as drivers for near-term LDC spending. For this reason. Underground Construction's latest survey figures indicate gas utility spending to serve new customers, and rehabilitate, repair and replace the nation's X.XXX,XXX miles of distribution mains and XX,XXX.XXX services, meters, valve, regulators, catholic protection, SCADA networks and peak-shaving facilities will reach almost $XX.X billion in 2012, compared to $XX.X billion in 2011.
Natural gas distribution mains and service lines are comprised of several different pipe materials as systems were constructed during the XXth and XXth centuries. As of Dec. XX. 2009, plastic and steel pipe made up approximately XX percent of the mileage of natural gas distribution pipelines. The remaining X percent is primarily iron pipe, either cast iron or ductile iron.
According to the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA):
* At the end of 2004,XX.XXX miles of cast iron main were remained in natural gas distribution service compared to XX,XXX miles of cast iron main as of the end of 2009. The mileage of cast iron mains was reduced by X.XXX miles (XX.X percent) over the five year period; e
* At the end of 2009 cast iron distribution pipelines were operated in XX states;
* Fifty percent of the mileage resides in four states: New Jersey, New York. Massachusetts and Pennsylvania;
* Eighty percent of the mileage resides in XX stales: New Jersey. New York. Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Illinois, Alabama, Connecticut-Maryland and Missouri; and
* The National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives (NAPSR) reported that XX of the XX states with cast iron mains have cast iron main replacement programs. Of the XX states that contain XX percent of the cast iron main mileage (as described above). Maryland is the only states that does not have a cast iron replacement program. Seven of the eight states (Massachusetts has no projection for completing cast iron replacement) with replacement programs have reported that their work should be completed by projected dates as follows: New Jersey - XXXX; New York - XXXX; Pennsylvania -XXXX; Michigan -XXXX; Illinois - XXXX; Alabama - XXXX; Connecticut - XXXX; Missouri - XXXX.
Some state pipeline safety authorities have mandated operators replace all or parts of their cast iron systems. Atlanta (XX-year replacement of all cast iron and bare steeh to be completed in 2013) and the District of Columbia (XX-year replacement of the eight-inch and XX-inch cast iron pipes, completed in 2004) are two examples. When state authorities mandate the pipe replacement program, operators are generally assured that they will recover their costs through their rate base. If the program is voluntary, the operator does not know if the cost is recoverable until they file a rate case.
Once again. Underground Construction and sister publication Pipeline & Gas Journal surveyed LDC managers for comments on several subjects including pipe replacement programs and the cost of finding and repairing leaky mains.
Figures provided by survey participates on main costs indicate that X- and X-inch mains remain widely used in the gas utility industry, accounting for XX-XX percent of new main installations in developed areas.
LDCs reported wide use of plastic mains and provide the following as typical per foot installation costs: $X.XX to $XX.XX for two-inch; $XX to $XX for three-inch; $XX to $XX for four-inch; and $XX to $XX for six-inch.
While most recipients indicated they no longer used steel mains for new installations, others provided the following as costs for protected steel main installations; two-inch, $X.XX to $XX; three-inch, $XX to $XX; four-inch, $XX.XX to $XX; and six-inch, $XX.XX to $XX.
Survey figures indicate that XX percent of participants have replacement programs in progress to remove unprotected steel and cast iron in existing system. Although XX percent of survey respondents reported no cast iron or unprotected steel, those reporting cast iron or unprotected steel in existing systems said they traditionally relied on leak history, location and pipe maintenance and repair history to select mains and service lines for replacement.
Only X percent of survey recipients indicated they had not yet started a long-term program to replace bare steel and cast iron.
Xcel Energy has had an Accelerated Main Replacement Program (AMRP) in place since 2008. According to the Xcel website, under the AMRP, XXX miles of cast iron, bare steel and PVC distribution mains will be removed from the system.
In 2012, the company plans to replace XX,XXX feet of PVC mains, XXX,XXX feet of cast iron and XX,XXX feet of bare steel.
Columbus Gas of Ohio has a $X billion, XX-year program under way to replace bare steel and cast iron distribution pipe in its system. According to the company website, $XXX million a year is spent replacing main lines and service lines and another $XX million a year operating and maintaining these lines.
A significant number of survey respondents said they had committed considerable resources to implement and meet the Distribution Integrity Management Program (DIMP) requirements. Cited most often as contributing to the cost for LDCs were: additional reporting and tracking burdens; damage recording by type; and increased construction supervision and labor. Several LDCs also included the cost of DIMP plan development tools.
Once again, the respondents consistently cited leak location - street vs. lawn - as driving the finding and repairing costs of leaky mains. About XX percent of survey respondents gave location as a major cost factor. Those giving finding and repair costs per occurrence, regardless of size, placed costs between $XXX and $X,XXX.
A utility in South Dakota with XXX,XXX gas customers gave $X,XXX as its average cost for locating and repairing leaky mains, while a California-based utility serving more than X million customers reported its average cost for finding and repairing leaky mains as: two to X-inch, $XXX, and XX to XX-inch, $X,XXX.
With the vast majority of the network underground, pipelines arc vulnerable to excavation damage by third-party excavators. Though such damage is easily preventable, it remains a major cause of pipeline incidents involving facilities and injuries. Excavation damage was the most cited cause of damage likely to affect gas pipeline integrity by the LDCs surveyed.
According to PHMS A, one-third of all distribution failures are caused by excavation damage and it is a leading cause of pipeline incidents involving fatalities and injuries.
A sizeable number of recipients said they continue to rely on contractors to provide a major portion of new distribution construction to install gas utilities. While about XX percent indicated they do not rely on contractors at all, XX percent reported relying on contactors to carry out XX to XXX percent of all new construction on projects.
NEW & REPLAC EMENT MAINS & SERVICES,2008-2012
2012 2011 2010 2009 2008
Miles of Main New XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX Miles of Main Replacement XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX Total XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX Miles of Service New XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX Miles of Main Replacement XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX XX,XXX ...