|Title:||Global coal trade with a breakdown for steam and coking in tons for 2000, 2004, 2009, and 2010|
|Source:||Indonesian Commercial Newsletter|
Start of full article - but without data
World's coal trade
2000, 2004, 2009--2010
Year Steam Coking Total Trade
2000 XXX XXX XXX 2004 XXX XXX XXX 2009 XXX XXX XXX 2010 XXX XXX XXX
Sources: BP, IEA, IISI, SSY
World's coal market
The world's coal consumption has increased used as a source of energy since the soaring prices of oil in 2008. Coal trade grew sharply in the world notably since 2009.
The increase in coal market followed growing demand especially from China and India, two large economies which are growing fast amid the global economic slowdown. Increase was also recorded in coal demand in ASEAN as countries in this region are also seeking cheaper energy as alternative to expensive oil.
In the past five years, coal trade volume has shot up from XXX million tons in 2004 to XXX million tons in 2010. Meanwhile, the world's coal consumption was estimated to reach X,XXX million tons in 2011.
The type of steam coal, which is used as boiler fuel or to generate electricity has been growing more dominant in coal trade in the world. In 2000, trade of steam coal in the world totaled only XXX million tons, but in 2010, the figure shot up to XXX million tons.
Meanwhile trade of coking coal, which is used widely in iron smelters totaled only XXX million tons in 2000, growing more moderately to XXX million tons in 2010.
Indonesia second largest coal exporter in the world
Indonesia has boosted its coal exports taking advantage of the growing demand in the world market placing itself the world's second largest exporter after Australia. China and South Africa fell in position among coal exporters as the two countries have curbed exports to meet growing domestic demand.
Other countries continuing to boost coal exports include Colombia, Russia and the United States.
Japan is the world's largest coal importing country. Japan is one of major industrialized economies heavily dependent on imports for sources of energy including oil, gas and coal. In 2010, that country's coal imports totaled XXX million tons.
China, which is the world's largest coal producer and previously was a major coal suppliers to the world market, now has become a net importer because of fast growing domestic requirement. India is also one of a big coal producers, but rapid economic growth necessitating larger coal supplies.
Indonesia, the second largest coal exporter, is only the seventh largest among coal producing countries. The largest is China with production of X.XX billion tons of coal in 2010, but it is also the largest consumer of coal in the world, followed by South Korea and India.
The world's coal production was estimated at X,XXX million tons in 2011, down X.X% from X,XXX million tons in the previous year. The production did not include brown coal or lignite which has low calorific value.
China and the United States are both world's largest producers and at the same time largest consumers of coal. In 2010, China's coal production reached X.XX billion tons and United States produced X.XX billion tons. Most of their coal production is for domestic consumption. Indonesia's coal production is not very big but it is the second largest exporter of that commodity as most of its production is exported. The country, however, begins to curb exports to meet growing domestic demand especially for power plants of state electric company PLN. PLN is building coal-fired power plants with a total capacity of XX,XXX megawatts. The program in the electricity sector will continue that coal consumption in the country is expected to grow faster especially as most new cement plants and steel factories use coal for fuel.
World's coal consumption
According to the EIA, world's total coal consumption reached X.XX billion tons in 2011, or down X.X % from X.XX billion tons in 2010.
In 2012, the world's coal consumption is forecast to rise to X.XX billion tons, or an increase of X.X% from 2011.
The largest coal consumer is China reaching X.XX billion tons or around XX.X% of the world's total consumption in 2011. The second largest consumer is the United States with consumption of XXX million tons or around XX.X% of the world's consumption.
The United States holds the largest coal reserves, accounting for XX.X% of the world's total coal reserves, followed by Russia, China and India. World's proven coal reserves, according to the World Energy Council in 2008 totaled XXX billion tons, and XXX billion tons of which are in the United States, which has the largest proven coal reserves in the world.
Based on data of the World Energy Council, Indonesia had only proven coal reserves of X.X billion tons in 2008 or X.X% of the world's proven reserves. The Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry, however, said the country had proven reserves totaling X.X billion tons in 2008. Later in 2011, after intensive explorations, the proven reserve grew to XX.XX billion tons. Explorations have been brisker to follow growing demand as a result of the soaring oil prices.
Types and specifications of coal
The types of coal include hard coal and brown coal each with different characteristics. Following are the types of coal found in Indonesia.
Hard coal, is one having calorific value of more than XXXX kcal/kg (XX.XX MJ/kg). Hard coal includes steam coal, coking coal, bituminous coal and anthracite.
Brown coal is one with low calorific value including lignite and sub-bituminous coal. This type of coal is generally used to fuel power plants.
Steam coal is one used by boilers/steam generators and hearths, and stoves. The type of steam coal includes anthracite and bituminous coal with gross calorific value larger than XX,XXX kJ/kg (XXXX kcal/kg) and lower than that of coking coal.
Coking coal is one used widely to produce coke as a reductant at steel blast furnace. The gross calorific value of coking coal is larger than XX,XXX kJ/kg (XXXX kcal/kg) free from ashes.
Sub-bituminous coal is one having gross calorific value from XX,XXX kJ/kg (XXXX kcal/kg) to XX,XXX kJ/kg (XXXX kcal/kg).
Anthracite is coal with the highest quality having the highest calorific value of more than XXXX kcal per kg. This type of coal has similar characteristic as those of steam coal.
Lignite is coal having gross calorific value of less than X,XXX kcal/kg (XX.XX MJ/kg) with volatile matter more than XX% in dry condition. Lignite is often called Low Rank Coal or Brown Coal.
Coke is the result of carbonization of steam coal at a high temperature used as a reducing agent in iron ore smelter (blast furnace).
Most of coal reserves in Indonesia are of tertiary age formed around XX million years ago. Most or XX% of them consists of brown coal included in the category of lignite to sub-bituminous coal with bituminous coal and anthracite making up a smaller part or less than XX%.
Indonesian coal is known to have low content of ashes and sulfur, therefore, most of the country's coal is more valuable if used as fuel or as steam coal causing less pollution.
Specifications of Coal
Each coal mines produces coal with different characteristics and users need coal with certain types and specifications. Among the specifications more often asked by consumers include :
* Calorific Value (CV), in cal/gram or kcal/gr unit.
CV indicates energy carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur content of coal.
* Moisture, in percentage unit
Humidity includes free moisture (FM) and inherent moisture (IM). The total of both is called Total Moisture (TM). Humidity determines the use of primary air to dry coal.
* Volatile Matter (VM), in percentage unit
VM content will determine the perfection of burning and fire intensity, based on the ratio or fixed carbon (FC) to VM called fuel ratio. The higher fuel ratio, the more carbon content unburned will be. If the ratio is more than X.X the burning is not perfect that the speed of burning is slower.
* Ash content, in percentage unit
The higher the ash content will determine the level of pollution, wearing out and corrosion of the equipment used.